World Diabetes Day November 14, 2022

World Diabetes Day is the primary global awareness campaign focusing on diabetes mellitus and is held on 14 November each year.
It was led by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), each World Diabetes Day focuses on a theme related to diabetes; type-2 diabetes is largely preventable and treatable non-communicable disease that is rapidly increasing in numbers worldwide. Type 1 diabetes is not preventable but can be managed with insulin injections. Topics covered have included diabetes and human rights, diabetes and lifestyle, diabetes and obesity, diabetes in the disadvantaged and the vulnerable, and diabetes in children and adolescents.


What is diabetes?
Diabetes is a chronic disease that occurs when the pancreas does not produce enough insulin or the body cannot effectively use the insulin it produces. Insulin is a hormone that regulates blood sugar. Hyperglycemia, or elevated blood sugar, is a common consequence of uncontrolled diabetes, which over time can wreak havoc on many systems in the body, especially the nerves and blood vessels.
Diabetes-related testing is mainly blood glucose testing, including fasting blood glucose, glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and glycosylated hemoglobin. Although blood glucose testing is widely used, there may also be some disadvantages. For example, it can only monitor the blood glucose level in the body, and a single check of fasting blood glucose may cause some diabetes to be missed. high or normal. Since hyperglycemia is caused by defects in insulin secretion or its biological effects, or both, there is a need for more intuitive detection indicators for insulin secretion in clinical practice.
Introduction to insulin and C-peptide:
Insulin consists of 51 amino acids consisting of two peptide chains, A and B, linked together by two disulfide bonds. It is derived from β-pancreatic cells. Its main function is to promote the conversion of glucose and the production of glycogen, and inhibit gluconeogenesis. Thereby maintaining the stability of blood sugar.

Glucose transport through cell membrane via transporters

C-peptide is secreted by pancreatic β-cells and has a common precursor, proinsulin, with insulin. Proinsulin is split into 1 molecule of insulin and 1 molecule of C-peptide, so the molar mass of C-peptide is consistent with its own insulin, and measuring C-peptide is measuring the content of insulin. At the same time, it is not inactivated by the liver like insulin in the metabolic process, and its half-life is longer than that of insulin, so the C-peptide content in peripheral blood is more stable than insulin, and it is not affected by exogenous insulin, so it can better reflect Pancreatic β-cell function.
What are the clinical manifestations?
Insulin and C-peptide are important detection indicators for insulin. Through these two tests, patients can know whether they are absolutely lacking insulin or relatively lacking insulin, whether they are type 1 diabetes or type 2 diabetes.
Type 1 diabetes, formerly known as insulin-dependent diabetes, accounts for about 10% of the total number of diabetic patients and often occurs in children and adolescents.
The cause is that pancreatic islet B cells are destroyed by cell-mediated autoimmunity and cannot synthesize and secrete insulin by themselves. There may be a variety of autoantibodies in the serum at the onset of the disease. When type 1 diabetes occurs, the symptoms of diabetes are more obvious, and ketosis is prone to occur, that is, there is a tendency to ketosis, and it needs to rely on exogenous insulin to survive. Once the insulin treatment is stopped, it will be life-threatening. After receiving insulin treatment, the function of pancreatic islet B cells improves, the number of B cells also increases, the clinical symptoms improve, and the dosage of insulin can be reduced. This is the so-called honeymoon period, which can last for several months. Afterwards, as the disease progresses, it is still necessary to rely on foreign aid insulin to control blood sugar levels and curb ketone body production.

Type 2 diabetes, formerly known as non-insulin-dependent diabetes, accounts for about 90% of the total number of diabetic patients, and most of them are diagnosed after the age of 35.
The onset is slow and insidious. Islet cells secrete more or less insulin, or normal, and the peak of secretion shifts later. About 60% of patients with type 2 diabetes are overweight or obese. Long-term overeating, high calorie intake, gradual weight gain, and even obesity. Obesity leads to insulin resistance, elevated blood sugar, and no obvious tendency to ketosis. Most patients can stably control blood sugar after diet control and oral hypoglycemic drugs; however, some patients, especially very obese patients, need exogenous insulin to control blood sugar. Type 2 diabetes has obvious familial inheritance.


How to prevent diabetes?
An estimated 422 million adults worldwide had diabetes in 2014, up from 108 million in 1980. Furthermore, the global prevalence of diabetes has almost doubled since 1980, from 4.7% to 8.5% of the adult population. Diabetes kills 3.4 million people each year and, if not properly treated, can cause physical disabilities including blindness. This suggests that associated risk factors such as being overweight or obese are also on the rise. The prevalence of diabetes has increased faster in low- and middle-income countries than in high-income countries over the past decade. The good news is that through medical treatment and behavioral control, people with diabetes can live a normal life and lifespan like healthy people.
So, let us share with you a few ways to prevent diabetes:
1. Exercise: Regular exercise is one of the best ways to prevent or control type 2 diabetes. In fact, both physical inactivity and prolonged inactivity may increase the risk of diabetes. Regular exercise can improve the ability of muscles to use insulin and absorb glucose, and it can also relieve the pressure on some insulin-producing cells. Exercise has another benefit, which is that it can help you lose weight. As long as you can spend 5 days a week exercising for 30 minutes each time, it will be of great help to improve blood pressure and cholesterol. Exercise is the most effective way to fight diabetes.
2. Healthy diet: Healthy diet is very important to prevent or control diabetes. When choosing beverages, you should choose plain water, sugar-free drinks, or sugar-free coffee, and stay away from sugary drinks. Children and adults who regularly drink sugary drinks are more likely to be overweight. Additionally, sugary drinks may contribute to insulin resistance. In terms of fat intake, you should avoid “bad fats” and choose “good fats”. Eating vegetable oils and nut oils can increase the acceptance of glucose by insulin receptors in human muscles and help prevent type 2 diabetes. Limit your intake of processed carbohydrates, such as white bread and rice, as they can raise blood sugar and insulin. Finally, limit your intake of red meat and try to eat healthier sources of protein, such as poultry or fish.
3. Weight control: Obesity is the biggest cause of type 2 diabetes. Obese people are 20 to 40 times more likely to develop diabetes than normal weight people. Diabetes can be almost completely prevented and controlled through a balanced, healthy diet and regular exercise. According to the “Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP)” study in the United States, compared with patients who received placebo treatment, patients who underwent three years of lifestyle intervention (ILS) had a 58% reduction in the risk of developing diabetes. It’s worth noting that academics have also found that, on average, every kilogram lost reduces the risk of developing diabetes by 16%, and these numbers should serve as motivation for you to maintain a healthy weight.
4. Regular health checkups: Regular health checkups and diabetes screenings can provide comprehensive information on whether you are a high-risk group for diabetes. Diabetes screening will check “glycosylated hemoglobin” in the blood and “albumin” in the urine. If the two numbers are higher than normal, it means you may be suffering from diabetes. We offer the Diabetes Program to assist in the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of diabetes. From identifying the signs of pre-diabetes to treating diabetic retinopathy and gestational diabetes, we can provide necessary treatment and education for diabetic patients, so that patients can return to normal life as much as possible.


Aehealth Insulin Rapid Quantitative Test uses immunofluorescence. Combined with Aehealth Lamuno X immunofluorescence analysis, it can be used to assist in diabetes typing and diagnosis, so as to prescribe the right medicine.

lamuno x

Quick Test: 5-15 min get the results;

Room temperature transportation and storage;

Reliable Results: Correlate to international standard.


Post time: Nov-16-2022